Importance of Product Reviews

There are more reasons than one why product reviews are very important. In our Photoshop Lady website, we are confident that every product review written is not just a figment of our imagination or something that we randomly thought about. We understand how and why product reviews are very significant and important. That is why we always do our best to come up with reviews that will not only be a good read but will also be of great help. So, if you are still wondering about the importance of product reviews, don’t worry since this post is solely on them!

What is a product review

To start with, what really is a product review? Taken from the Cambridge Dictionary, a product review is also known as a customer review. In e-commerce or marketing, it is an evaluation or a report about a product on a commercial or guide website to help future consumers decide on whether to use or buy a certain product.

According to Vangie Beal, when it comes to e-commerce, product reviews are used on shopping sites to give writers and customers the opportunity to rate and comment on products they have purchased. It can be done through an e-mail or right immediately on the product page. When published, other consumers can read these when making a purchase decision, and help them decide as well. Often, the company will include a URL on printed literature or e-mail marketing to invite customers to review their service after a transaction has been completed. Therefore, product reviews do not only affect the popularity or the feedback on products, but also the decision future consumers or buyers will make.

Importance of product reviews

Ratings and product reviews greatly affect the decision-making and behavior of the modern consumers. A high percentage of consumers read and base their decisions on product reviews. An online product review is the digital version of word-of-mouth marketing and we cannot turn away from it. It is defined by how customers or product reviewers experience a brand,  product, software, or service. And, like any other experience, it continuously evolves over time.

Steer purchase decisions

The presence of product reviews can help establish authenticity in a website. Most shoppers, especially the modern ones, will most likely never purchase a product without reading a good deal of product reviews. Believe it or not, they will make time to read every product review of a product that caught their eye. People read the good, the average, and the downright negative to make the all-important decision: should I pull out my wallet and purchase this thing? A study revealed that the presence of ratings and product reviews ranked as the most important factor affecting purchase decisions. Consumers consider them as an integral factor in their online purchase decision compared to the brand or price of the product. Also, whether or not free shipping is offered. Therefore, product reviews are important since they greatly affect purchasing decisions.

Builds trust and confidence in the product

Product reviews are one of the many ways to gain trust in the product and store. Online product reviews also increase and improve the website’s reputation. They do not work only to put confidence in their products but mostly build trust and loyalty. Well-written product reviews also set your products apart from the other ones. It is important that you get to establish trust through a good set of product reviews. Why? It is because trust when built, can help convert offline consumers online, and online consumers to become loyal buyers. Product reviews are also considered as a go-to source of product information for informed consumers. When stakes are high, such as with products in categories like computer, software, electronics and appliances, shoppers tend to place an even higher regard on trusty product information.

The modern “word-of-mouth”

The WOM or word-of-mouth marketing strategy has been a very effective way to encourage consumers to buy and use a certain product. Now, in our technologically advancing world, product reviews are considered to be the modern word-of-mouth. Before, shoppers relied on the opinions of friends, families, and sales agents to guide their purchasing decisions. Now, consumers tend to read tons of product reviews to guide them not only in buying products, but also tutorials, tips, and tricks related to different items. Nowadays, product reviews enable shoppers to tap into the hundreds of millions of these authentic opinions and product reviews. The influence of word-of-mouth marketing is growing, especially among younger and new consumers. Through reading product reviews, consumers get to be either encouraged or discouraged, just like the word-of-mouth works.

Increase the store’s online presence, exposure, and discoverability

Product reviews can also effectively help in increasing a store ’s online presence. Since customer feedback and written product reviews appear on each product’s page, reviews can help pages be found on search engines via unique and well-researched keywords. In the early phase of the purchasing decision, potential buyers will filter their options based on ratings and reviews. Product reviews become important evaluation tools for making purchases, which is crucial in the absence of the ability to try and test products such as automotive and consumer electronics and software. It is a complex form of user-generated content that is rich in SEO, using different words or keywords to make the product more discoverable, specifically for certain audiences. More product reviews mean more and long-term exposure for your store and website.

Effectively drive sales

As mentioned above, product reviews are important since they affect purchase decisions. And because of this, they can also effectively drive sales. There is a strong relationship between product reviews and sale conversation rates. It has everything to do with the buyer’s way of filtering decisions based on the product review they have read. A helpful product review is like a second opinion that reassures a buyer of their purchase. It does encourage them from the consideration to the purchase phase.

Facts to support the importance of product reviews

  • 92% users will use a local business if it has four-star or above rating.
  • 90% consumers read online reviews before visiting a business.
  • 88% of consumers trust online reviews as much as personal recommendations.
  • 85% of customers read up to 10 reviews.
  • 72% of consumers feel that positive reviews make them trust online selling websites more.
  • 72% online shoppers will purchase only after reading positive reviews.
  • 67% of consumers read up to 6 reviews.
  • 39% customers read reviews regularly.
  • 31% consumers are inclined to spend on business with excellent reviews.
  • 7% of consumers read 20+ reviews.

Source: Search Engine Land


The immediate importance of product reviews is that they can make your consumers and future customers feel that much more confident. The more great product reviews you have, the more convinced a shopper will be. Thinking and knowing that they’re making the right decision on a trusted website. Moreover, product reviews can also help everyone understand your products better. At Photoshop Lady, we do not only prepare tips, tricks, tutorials, and guides for you. We also find and write significant product reviews that will surely be helpful.  Read more at Product Expert, where you will find the very best in product reviews!


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What Is The Ideal Zoom Room Background

With the pandemic ravaging the world all over, companies and individuals have been forced to adapt and make the best of the situation. We all realize that somehow life would need to go on, and we would need to find new and creative ways to work, carry on with our education and our social lives. One of the major ways in which organizations have evolved is by working from home and using software such as Zoom to carry out meetings and connect. While this has been quite effective and helpful in maintaining social distance, there have been plenty of mishaps such as pets showing up in front of the screen, or having kids run into the room screaming. All of these are normal life scenarios, and we have to find a way to maintain a good balance. Below, we have highlighted a couple of tips to help you with just that.

One of the easiest ways is to make your office space Zoom friendly. To do this, it is necessary that you have a good background, as it will be one of the major areas that your clients and colleagues will view through the screen. A few tips you can use include:

  • Pay attention to the color of your background

You want to select a space that will create contrast against your silhouette. For instance, if you have dark clothing on, then a brighter background will be good for you, and vice versa. Creating this contrast will prevent you from blending in into the background, and will instead help to define your outline.

  • Invest in good equipment

One of the major challenges in Zoom meetings is not being able to hear or see the other with clarity. To avoid these issues, then one of the things you can do is to invest in good Zoom Room equipment. A ring light, for instance, will greatly help to brighten up a dark room. It will also ensure that you are visible through the camera, thus making you presentable and boosting your confidence. Investing in good audio equipment is pretty helpful too since you will be able to articulate your points clearly and communicate with your colleagues with ease.

  • Tone down on visual distractions

While having a zoom meeting, it may be helpful to ensure that you clear away any personal items that you would not want your colleagues to see. This may include your family photos, for privacy, for instance. Furthermore, if you do not have the luxury of having a separate office space but instead have a desk in your bedroom, then you may consider background filters. These are an excellent and easy way for you to make your background conducive, without having to move around too much stuff.

With the new working from home setup, we have to embrace the new ways of working and adapt to the times. Setting up a comfortable and conducive office space is necessary, as it will help make you more productive. We do hope that these few tips will at the very least help to get you started.

The post What Is The Ideal Zoom Room Background appeared first on Photoshop Lady.

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What is a cookie consent? Do they affect user experience?

In this article, our objective is to get an answer these two questions: What is a cookie consent? Does it affect user experience?  To start with, we should know what a cookie is. Cookies, not those you eat with your milk, are messages that different web servers pass to your web browser. This happens when you visit different and various sites on the internet. Your browser then stores each message in a small file called cookie.txt. Eventually, when you request another page from the server, your browser will then send the cookie back to the server. These cookies provide and give away for websites to know and recognize you, your choices, and keep track of your preferences.

What is a cookie consent

Cookie Consent is known to be one of the easiest, simplest and most popular cookie notification plugins developed.  One of the many well-known aspects of the Cookie Consent plugin is its simple usage and ease of use. What you should basically do is just simply install and activate the plugin. This will then automatically add the cookie consent notification bar in your browser. With that, we will no longer need configuration settings. Upon activation of the plugin, it creates a page on your site with important and useful information on your cookie policy. It will then automatically link to the page from the notifications bar. Simply, if you are on the default plugin settings, it will only take a matter of seconds for it to start up and get running.
What is a cookie consent? Do they affect user experience?

There are many different ways on how cookies of first and/or third party provenance can track website users. A good example is the IP address or merely the actions and choices of users not exclusively on the site, but also differ from site to site. Since the GDPR comes with a broad definition of personal data, if you happen to use cookies, you will need to ask consent from your existing and future users. You certainly need to ask for consent before setting up any cookies other than the necessary ones. Cookies that can track direct personal data or data that can be a potential way to connect or single out an identification to track a person, must be totally taken away. An appropriate update, in accordance with the regulations, should be applied to the cookie policy and cookie consent. Many notable modern websites have hundreds of useful and active cookies and online tracking in use.

What is GDPR?
The GDPR, General Data Protection Regulation, is a known ePrivacy regulation.
These are the six data protection principles contained in the GDPR:

⦁ Lawfulness, fairness, and transparency
⦁ To purpose limitations
⦁ Works in data minimization
⦁ Provide accuracy
⦁ Meet storage limitations
⦁ Integrity and confidentiality

In order to process useful user data, you are required to follow a ‘lawful basis’
The GDPR sets out six lawful bases for processing personal data:
1. Consent – the individual should be able to provide clear and straightforward consent for you to make use. In that way, you can process their personal data for a specific purpose.
2. Contract – the processing is necessary for a contract that you have with the individual. Taking careful and specific steps before entering into a contract is important and necessary.
3. Legal obligation – the processing, of course, is necessary and important for you to comply with the law.
4. Vital interests – accurate processing is essential to protect someone’s life and privacy.
5. Public task – the processing is necessary for you to perform a task in the public interest. It is also important for your official functions, and the task or function should have a clear basis in law.
6. Legitimate interests – viable legitimate interests or the legitimate interests of a third party is another important reason for processing, excepting that there is a good reason to protect the individual’s personal data and privacy which will nullify those legitimate interests.

Cookie Consent Models
Information Only
This model or type just basically informs the user that cookies are active and in use in the site. The users’ only choice is to either accept the cookies or just navigate away.

Implied Consent
The difference of the Implied Consent from Information Only model is that the site provides the ability to choose whether to directly opt-out or refuse cookies in the site, even though they are set by default in the first place.

Soft Opt-In
The Soft opt-in may tend to look a lot like Information Only. However, the significant difference is that cookies are blocked or may not appear on the first arrival to the site or the landing page. They will consider any further user interaction in the site, such as clicking on a link, mostly to a second page. This may then work as consent, and normally set cookies on the second page.

Explicit Consent
With this model or type, you may have to block the cookies until users perform a specific or required action that will signal to their acceptance of cookies. The action should only be specific to signify that acceptance. Basically, this means they have to tick or choose a box or click a button or a link that says ‘I accept cookies’ or anything similar.

Mixed Consent
As the description and name suggest, this one is a hybrid or mixed type approach. They basically just apply different models to different types of cookies based on their use and according to their purpose. A good example would be using an Implied Consent for web analytics and another Soft Opt-in for any third-party advertising.

More about cookies
Cookies Are Beneficial
We commonly use cookies to “maintain the state” of an internet or browser session. A great example is that during online shopping, users can place items in their online shopping cart, switch to another page or even another site, and not lose those items. It is because when the user comes back, the site will be able to safely recognize them and their items on the cart. These cookies contain a range of addresses or URLs for which they are valid. If the Web browser or other HTTP application sends a request to a Web server with those familiar and same URLs, it then sends the related cookies along. One example, if your user ID and password are stored in a cookie, it saves you time and effort from typing in the same information once again when accessing that service during another time. By retaining and saving useful user history, cookies allow the website to adjust the pages fittingly and create a custom experience for each user.

Your Cookies Recognize You
There may be a bit of personal data that are stored in the cookie files in your computer. For this reason, this storehouse or folder of private and personal information may become an object of attack

Personal Cookies – First Party
Typically, the “first-party” cookies, but not “third-party” cookies are allowed according to the default settings of your Web browser. The websites you visit create first-party cookies. They keep track of your personal preferences and the current session as mentioned above.

Third-Party Tracking Cookies
Websites tend to create third-party cookies other than those that you are currently visiting. An example is a third-party advertiser on that same site. The purpose of these cookies is usually and basically just to track your surfing habits and practices. This may be a reason why third-party cookies are considered an invasion of privacy. This is also considered to be riskier compared to cookies that are of first-party.

Configuration Settings
Your Web browser can be configured and set so that only first-party cookies that come from the originating sites are maintained. You can set the configuration settings in order to prevent those cookies from being kept and stored in your computer. However, that strictly limits the Web surfing experience. To configure settings, search and look for the cookie options in your browser in the Preferences or Options menu.

Cookies and cookie consent are there for a reason. They do not just pop-up and hang in there to bother you or keep track of your data. If you are eager to learn and know more about a cookie consent, we assure you they are easy to decipher and understand as well.

The post What is a cookie consent? Do they affect user experience? appeared first on Photoshop Lady.

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Websites that are poorly designed tend to perform below average and don’t have optimal Google Analytics metrics (e.g. low time on site, high bounce rates,  low pages per visit and low conversions). So what makes good design? let’s look into the top 10 web design principles that surely make ant website pleasing, easy to use, engaging, and effective.


Good web design always fulfill  the needs of the visitor. Are your web user looking for entertainment, information, some type of interaction, or to transact with your business? Each page of your website needs to have a clear viw of purpose, and to fulfill a specific need for your website users in the most effective way possible.


People on the web usually want information quickly, so it is important to communicate clearly, and make your information easy to read and digest. Some effective techniques include: presenting information using headlines and sub headlines, using bullet points instead of long paragraphs.

web design principles

web design principles


In general, fonts such as Arial and Verdana are easier to read online (Sans Serif fonts are contemporary looking fonts without decorative finishes). The ideal font size for reading easily online is 16px and stick to a maximum of 3 typefaces in a maximum of 3 point sizes to keep your design streamlined.


A picture can speak a thousand words, and choosing the right images for your website can help with brand positioning and connecting with your target audience. If you don’t have high quality photos on hand, try using stock photos to lift the look of your website. You can also consider videos, infographics. As these can be much effective in web design principles at Presenting than most well written piece of text.


A well colour pattern can go a long way to enhance the user experience. Complementary colours create balance and harmony. Using contrasting colours for the text and background will make reading easier on the eye. Vibrant colours create emotion and should be used sparingly (e.g. for buttons and call to actions). Last but not least, blank space/ negative space is very effective at giving your website a modern look.


Navigation is about how easy people can take action and move around your website. Some techniques for effective page navigation include a logical page hierarchy, using bread crumbs, designing clickable buttons, and following the ‘three click rule’ which means users will be able to find the information they are looking for within three clicks.



Eye tracking studies have revealed that people see computer screens in an “F” pattern. Most of what people see is in the top and left of the screen and the right side of the screen is rarely seen. Rather than trying to force the viewer’s visual flow, design website with a reader’s natural behavior and display information in order of importance (left to right, and top to bottom).


Placing content randomly on your web page can end up with a haphazard appearance that is messy. Grid based layouts places content into divided sections, columns and boxes that line up and feel balanced, which leads to a better looking website design.


The key point in web design principles. Everybody hates a website that takes ages to load. To improve page load time, you can optimize image sizes (size and scale), combining code into a central CSS or JavaScript file (this reduces HTTP requests) and minify HTML, CSS, JavaScript (compressed to speed up their load time).


It is now common to use websites from multiple devices with multiple screen sizes, so it is important to consider if your website is mobile friendly. If your website is not mobile user friendly, you can rebuild it in a responsive design or you can build a dedicated mobile site (a separate website optimised specifically for mobile users).


Web Design Principles of Successful Websites

What is Web Design?

Web design surrounds many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites The very process of using creativity to design and construct a website and updating it regularly to incorporate changes is also referred to as web designing.

Besides the creation and updating, it also involves taking care of the front end look, the architecture of information shows, the layout, the colors, content, navigation ergonomics, as well as the designs of the various icons.

Some other areas in web design include search engine optimization, user experience designs, standardized codes, graphic design, as well as interface design.

The term ‘web design’ may also point to the visual aspect of a website but in truth it also overlaps with the process of web development in a more broad sense.

The process includes front end designing and also the process of writing the markup.


Basic elements of a good web design

To rise high with a good web design and an effective visual and technical appearance of a website, there are some elements that must be followed. To get some introduction about these elements, you can go through the following given points:


It is an element of a web design which is responsible to create a flow in the design. A good web design is one which automatically makes our eyes move from one corner or content of the website to another, according to relevance or hierarchy.


Texture is one element that can help provide your design with a feeling of a surface. There are several types of textures that you can incorporate, and some of them include natural textures and artificial textures. This element should be used in a way that it highlights the content given on the website and makes it look more appealing.


Another basic element of a good website is the use of color. A black and white website may work for certain niches like photography websites, but it is always better to raise the appeal of a website using colors in a creative way. The colors are added in the later stage and not during the designing.


On most webpages, the shapes used are rectangular or squares but they don’t necessarily have to be. Shapes are responsible for the creation of an enclosed boundary in the overall design, and you can experiment with any shape you seem suitable.


Best Programming Language For Web Development


Web Development

is said to the process of creating a website that can range from developing a single page or a multi page website. Web development is a set of activities taht include programming, web design, content creation, client side or server side scripting as well as network security tasks, etc. In recent years, web development is said to the creation of content management systems or CMS, which is the mid-step between the user and the database. In order to pursue web development as a profession, one of the most important things that you will need to consider is having expertise in programming languages.


Interpreted Languages

An interpreted language can be executed directly and freely, line by line without being compiled earlier. Source code is run directly to produces the defined behavior right away, without generating an intermediary file

PHP — PHP is a popular language. If you have worked with WordPress, Drupal, or Opencart, then you are probably familiar with PHP because all of these platform are build on it.

Python — Python is also a very popular language. Free courses in Python are given bt Udacity that can take you all the way from coding a simple program to a driver-less car.

Ruby — It is best known for their framework, Ruby on Rails. Ruby is a good choice for creating Domain Specific Languages, It is similar to Python.

Javascript — JS is often confused with Java because of the similar name, even though Java is compiled and Javascript is interpreted. Javascript is emerging up in more and more places these days, and its uses have grown beyond web-applications to desktop widgets and web-specific browsers.

Compiled Languages

Java — Java is a advancement of c++, and although it has many popular, supported platforms, it’s uses have been decreased in recent years.

C# — C# was developed by Microsoft Corporation as part of their .NET framework, and is meant to be a modern, programmer-friendly, all-purpose language for its users.

The Best Language

One can not state one particular best language because each language has its own uniqueness. The best language for us would probably going to be the one you already know the best. If you’re a complete novice, PHP will give you more results in less time.

What We Use

We use PHP and Javascript together.


Comments In PHP

Comments in php code are lines that are not read or executed as part of the program. Its purpose is to indicate some guiding text to  the person editing the code.

Comments are useful for:

  • To let others understand what you are doing, comments help other programmers understand what you were doing in each step.
  • To remind yourself, what you were working on. Most programmers have experienced coming back to their own work a year or two later and have to re-figure the working of their program.

PHP suppports three ways of adding comment/s.

Single Line Comment





Multi-line Comment






PHP Case Sensitivity

In PHP, All user defined functions, Classes and keywords are not Case Sensitive.



echo "EXAMPLE";


Both statements will execute.


My First PHP Program

PHP Program must run on a PHP enabled web server.

A PHP Program can be placed anywhere in the document. A PHP script starts with <?php and ends with ?>

first php program

The default extension of PHP file is .php

Writing First PHP Program

A PHP script file normally contains HTML tags and some PHP scripting code.



<h1> My First PHP Page </h1>


echo "Hello World";




echo is built-in PHP function to output the text on a web page.

Save this file with .php extension. create a public folder, save this file in this folder. Save this folder in www folder on WAMP server.

# Start Server

# Type in Browser “http://localhost/

# Navigate to the folder where we have placed the php file.

# Open your php file in browser. it will display your newly created page.



Top 10 Google Ranking Factors for 2017

List of Google Ranking Factors

Get Useful Content This is the most important signal for Google Ranking Factors. Directly or indirectly, your visitors are your customers. Impress them, help them, and give them what they’re looking for. That’s the whole point!

Tip: Write well edited comprehensive articles that provide value to the readers. Pay attention to detail & avoid spelling mistakes. Be original with your content, research, and analysis. Add trusted sources to support the information you give. Write interesting articles targeted for readers, not for search engines. Write what is beyond obvious.

Your landing page should bring an end to users search for that term. who likes to waste time searching endlessly for something. keep that in mind.

Domain age

A brand new website which has no old WHOIS history is hard to rank in search engine for the first three months. For high volume keywords, it can take six months or more.You need to be around for at least 2-3 months for this to be considered as Google ranking factors. You shouldn’t dream to be on the first page in the first couple of months unless you create a website with extraordinary content.

Organic quality links pointing to your website (Dofollow)

When others find your web page useful or interesting, they link back to you. If the link is nofollow, it is not counted by Google to calculate your PageRank. Dofollow links improves your website authority. Links are supposed to come organically and there are webmaster guidelines which warn you against any kind of unethical methods.

Tip: Buying links will be injurious to your website. Google may penalize your site, and if there is a manual action taken on it, it will disappear from the search results altogether. You may have to visit the doctor. Google is also very strict on violations. So don’t be a villain.

Duplicate content

The only way a site will rank well is if it has unique quality content. If you scrape other sites to create your web pages, they are not going to rank in search engine. There are webmaster guidelines on duplicate content. A good habit is to check your pages on Copyscape after publishing them to make sure you have not added any duplicate content unintentionally. Pages with content that provides real unique value, rank well.

Mobile friendly site

With more than 56% of all traffic being from mobile devices. They confirmed mobile friendly website as a Google Ranking Factors, your web pages need to display well on mobile devices like smartphones & tablets.

Secure website (HTTPS)

On 06 August 2014, Google confirmed HTTPSecure as a ranking signal. HTTPS protects the privacy and security of visitors and the integrity of the website. It not only prevents the users from intruders but also from Wi-Fi providers and ISP from injecting ads into your web pages. You can easily get a free SSL certificate from providers like Let’s Encrypt and then setup them on your hosting server or you can sign up with a host like SiteGround which provides them for free.

Site Speed

In April 2010, Google confirmed website Speed as a Google ranking factors. Your website load time should be less than 3 seconds, ideally in less than 2 seconds. If a site takes long to load, users are most likely to abandon it.

This website has a PageSpeed score 84/100 on desktops respectively. To check load times for a webpage, you can use



Domain history

If you are buying a domain that has been owned previously, you might want to make sure it hasn’t been in trouble with Google in the past. If it has received a manual action in the past, then it would be hard for it to acquire a respectable rank. You may either do a search or check to make sure it was not spammy.

Keyword density

Webmaster Guidelines mentions that keyword stuffing can harm your ranking in long run. You should make sure that the keyword density is not too much & it doesn’t appear to Google that you are keyword stuffing even if that is not your intention. As per my views, as long as it’s not above 4%, you should be able to achieve a decent rank. There is no ideal keyword density; your content & its quality matters more.

Keyword in H1, title tag, meta description, first paragraph & URL

By using your keyword once in each of the important places like the URL, H1 heading tag, web page title tag, meta description and in the first paragraph, you are telling the search engines and users about what your content is focused on. Without them in the right places, it is generally difficult to gain rank and get clicks. You should make sure that you don’t end up stuffing keywords. These should be unique & descriptive. This is important for Google Ranking Factors.



Drupal General concepts

Drupal General concepts

we will discusses some general concepts that will be useful for you to begin explore Drupal.

Node (Content)

A node is the general term for a bit of content on your website. The content type of the node will define what fields are included with it. Based on the type of node, different fields will be attached, and this is known as a content type. For eg: a basic Page content type has included fields such as title and body fields. Other examples of content type are: Book pages for use in Books, Blog pages in blogs, Discussion topics in forums, and News articles.

The word “node” is not used in mathematical sense as part of a network.

Entity types

An entity type is a useful abstraction to group together fields. Entity types stores and display data, which can be nodes (content), comments, user profiles, taxonomy terms or something custom developed.


They are another type of content you can have on your site (if you have activated the core Comment module). Each comment is typically a type of content that a user submits, attached to a distinct node. For example, each piece of discussion bound to a particular forum topic node is a comment.


Drupal has a system for classifying content referred as taxonomy. This is provided by the core Taxonomy module. user can define their own vocabularies (groups of taxonomy terms) and add terms to each vocabulary. Each vocabulary can then be linked to one or more content types, and in this way, nodes on your site can be grouped into various categories, classified, or tagged in any way you choose.


A user is a entity which represents a actual-world website user. By default, a user has a set of properties like their user name, password, e-mail address, and role. However, they may also have other properties provided by other modules, and it can be extended with new fields. For example, you could add a new field “Link” for user’s Twitter address.


A module is a part of software (code) that extends Drupal functionality. Modules fall into one of three categories:

Core modules are by default included with the main download of Drupal. These can be turned on or off without downloading additional components. Examples include Taxonomy, Book, Poll, or Blog
Contributed modules can be downloaded from the download section of, and installed inside your Drupal installation. Examples include Panels, Views or Meta tag.
Modules which you write yourself is called Custom Module. This requires a through understanding of Drupal, PHP programming, and Drupal’s API.

Regions & Blocks

Pages on your Drupal site are laid out in Regions. These can include the header, footer, featured top, featured bottom, sidebars, main content regions etc.. . Your theme may define additional regions.

Blocks are discrete chunks of information that are displayed in the regions of your website’s pages. Blocks can take the form of static chunks of HTML or text, menus (which are for site navigation), the output from modules or dynamic listings that you’ve created yourself (e.g. a list of new users).


There are four standard menus in Drupal 7:

The Main menu is built by site administrators and displayed automatically in the page header section of many themes (if not, you can enable their blocks to display them).
Management is the administration menu, and is presented in the Admin toolbar.
Navigation is a link-all menu that usually contains links supplied by modules on your website.
User menu contains links to the User account and the logout link.
You can also create your own menus (custom), and display them by enabling their blocks.

You can customize menus in several ways, such as reordering menu items by setting their “weight” or simply dragging them into place, renaming menu items, and changing the link title (i.e, tooltip that appears when you mouse hover a menu item). You can move a menu item into a different menu by editing the Parent property of the menu item.

You can also include custom menu items to a menu, from the Add menu item tab of the Menu administration screen. To create a menu item, you will need to provide the path/url to the content.

In all cases a menu item will only be displayed to a visitor if they have the permission to view the page it links to. For example, the admin menu item is not shown to visitors who are not registered/logged in.


The Theme layer is separate from the data layer, the functionality extension layer (module) and Core. Theme controls the appearance (look and feel) of your site, or how your site is displayed, including the graphic look, layout, and colors. A theme consists of one or more PHP template files that define the HTML output of your site’s pages, along with one or more CSS files that define the layout, fonts, colors, and other styles.

For a collection of useful materials for themers, see Theming and Front End Development with Drupal.


Not all sites have Views, most sites include the Views module because of the excellent tools it provides. Views allows people to choose a list of nodes or other entities and present them as blocks, pages, RSS feeds, or in other formats. The main use case for views is to create dynamically updating lists of content (for example, a list of  news), based on characteristics of that content (in the case of the news listing, that the content type is “News” and sorted by publication date).


Drupal preserve information in a database. Inside this database, each type of information has its own database table. For example, the basic information about the nodes of your website are stored in the Node table, and data of each field stores in a separate table (which Drupal creates automatically). Comments and Users also have their own database tables, as  permissions, roles, and other settings.

The most common database for Drupal is MySQL. However, you can also run Drupal on other database systems, such as PostgreSQL, as well.


When you visit a URL under your Drupal site, the part of the URL after your base site address is known as the path.

When you visit a path in your Drupal site, Drupal figures out what information should be sent to your browser by checking its list of routes and menu items. Generally, Drupal allows each module to define paths that the module will be responsible for, and when you choose to visit a particular path Drupal checks the module what should be displayed on the page.

For example, the page you are now viewing is, and the path is “node/18728”. The module that is functional for this path is the core Node module, so when you visit this page, Drupal lets the Node module determine what to display.


The bootstrap is the CPU (central processing unit) of Drupal. this is sometimes called the event loop in other interactive software environments . Drupal’s core is a bit like that. It sits around waiting for a path request, and then starts processing the request.


Permissions can be set to control what users have access to view and/or edit particular areas of a site. These permissions relates to registered users (ie: content editors, administrators, site members) and non-registered users. Permissions can be set to be very specific and granule making for a powerful feature to use when developing a site’s structure.